By Olivier Constance. Electrical Wiring. Publised at Saturday, October 21st 2017, 10:27:32 AM. It’s always good to be cognizant of trace lengths when you’re laying out a parallel bus, though at moderate frequencies it is nothing to stress about. The propagation time for a signal traveling through a trace is maybe 150 picoseconds/inch. So if you have two traces with a length mismatch of one inch, one signal will arrive 150 ps after the other signal. If your signals are transitioning at a frequency whose corresponding period is much greater than 150 ps, this one-inch mismatch won’t cause problems. Even at 100 MHz (which is pretty fast for a parallel bus), the period is 10 ns, i.e., ~67 times larger than the time-of-arrival discrepancy for a one-inch mismatch.
By Mailys Laurent. Car Wiring. Publised at Friday, January 05th 2018, 18:31:04 PM. Several modern cars have separate thin wires embedded in flat plastic strips. These strips are very compact, and are used mainly for accessories and relay controls that require little power.
By Cyrille Lothaire. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, January 06th 2018, 06:48:56 AM. Twist the bare ends together, then use pliers to press the twisted section into a compact shape. Solder the wires together so that they cannot be pulled apart, using only a little solder to avoid making the joint bulky. Wind insulating tape in a spiral over the joint.
By Mailys Laurent. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, January 06th 2018, 04:31:20 AM. Wires are usually connected to components by plastic-covered terminals which push on to a blade on the unit called a spade terminal. Nearly all types of terminals should be fitted to the wire with crimping pliers. There are a few types such as the "Scotchlok" which are secured by clips. For additional security, you can add solder to the wire.
By Adrienne Emmanuel. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, January 06th 2018, 02:35:05 AM. It transmits engine power to the gearbox, and allows transmission to be interrupted while a gear is selected to move off from a stationary position, or when gears are changed while the car is moving. Master cylinder Operatinglinkage Slave cylinder Flywheel The mastercylinder pumpshydraulic fluidin direction ofthe arrow. Most cars use a friction clutch operated either by fluid (hydraulic) or, more commonly, by a cable. When a car is moving under power, the clutch is engaged. A pressure plate bolted to the flywheel exerts constant force, by means of a diaphragm spring, on the driven plate. Earlier cars have a series of coil springs at the back of the pressure plate, instead of a diaphragm spring.
By Cyrille Lothaire. Motor Wiring. Published at Saturday, January 06th 2018, 02:24:21 AM. These are also known as canned motors. Two wires go into them. They often are directly connected to a battery. A switch turns them on. Higher voltages cause them to spin faster. Often geared down in toys, they are designed to spin fast. If turned on and forced to not spin, the motor will heat up, and may even burn up. The motor is made by copper wire covered with clear paint, and wound together in a ball. When the motor heats up too much, the paint turns into smoke, nearby copper wires connect, the motor becomes weaker, the motor heats up more, more smoke comes out, etc. The winding resistance keeps going down. Measure the winding resistance when the motor is new and measure again when there are problems.
By Gaspard Magalie. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, January 06th 2018, 02:18:13 AM. Starter motors fail mostly due to overheating. They are placed in a hostile, hot environment and cannot be expected to last indefinitely. Another mode of failure is a shorted or open winding. This exhibits itself as a "dead spot" on the commutator. If a brush lands on a dead spot the motor wont turn at all. A third failure-mode is a faulty pinion engagement. Sometimes the pinion assembly gets stiff or stuck due to lack of lubrication or wear. Starter motor rebuilding or replacement is required for all of these problems.
By Adrienne Emmanuel. Electrical Wiring. Published at Saturday, January 06th 2018, 01:57:12 AM. Although this device uses an I2C interface with communication speeds up to 1 MHz, two of the eight pins are dedicated to Alert (pin3) and nReset (pin 6). The Alert pin is intended to be connected, if desired, to an interrupt pin on a microcontroller. According to section 3.5 (ALERT Pin) of the datasheet, "The output of the pin depends on the value of the temperature reading relative to programmable limits," and its function is "explained in a separate application note.
By Mailys Laurent. Electrical Wiring. Published at Friday, January 05th 2018, 23:57:56 PM. V-groove panelization involves cutting a third of the board’s thickness from the top and bottom sides. The remaining part joins the separate boards and is then cut with a machine during the depaneling. This helps to reduce the stress on the PCB. One challenge with the V-groove method is that it is restrictive and cannot be used with PCBs that have overhanging components over the edges.
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