By Claudine Nicolette. Electrical Wiring. Publised at Thursday, December 28th 2017, 00:08:10 AM. This PCB, like almost all of my PCBs, is a four-layer board. In my opinion, it is not wise to restrict yourself to two layers unless you’re dealing with a very simple circuit or you really need to cut costs. The four-layer arrangement is beneficial in terms of routing and performance: routing, because via connections to internal planes almost completely eliminate power and ground traces; and performance, because the internal planes allow for low-resistance, low-inductance power and ground connections. The extra top-layer and bottom-layer real estate opened up by all the internal-plane connections come in very handy when you need to provide a generous copper area for improved thermal performance (for example, to make sure that your LDO or your motor driver doesn’t overheat and enter thermal shutdown).
By Gaspard Magalie. Car Wiring. Published at Wednesday, February 14th 2018, 13:54:05 PM. Both coils draw the plunger inward, causing it to pull the shift lever and engage the pinion gear. When the plunger is pulled into the coil all the way, the pinion fully engages the ring gear. When the ring gear is fully engaged, engine cranking begins. When the engine starts the hold-in coil will cut out and the plunger will move out, retracting the pinion and opening the starter switch.
By Claudine Nicolette. Motor Wiring. Published at Wednesday, February 14th 2018, 13:26:18 PM. A unipolar stepper motor has one winding with center tap per phase. Each section of windings is switched on for each direction of magnetic field. Since in this arrangement a magnetic pole can be reversed without switching the direction of current, the commutation circuit can be made very simple (e.g., a single transistor) for each winding. Typically, given a phase, the center tap of each winding is made common: giving three leads per phase and six leads for a typical two phase motor. Often, these two phase commons are internally joined, so the motor has only five leads.
By Fleurette Nina. Car Wiring. Published at Wednesday, February 14th 2018, 07:06:57 AM. Cut out all the damaged wires with wire cutters. Spread out the cuts across a bundle of several wires: if many joins are opposite each other their bulk may make it difficult to fit the loom into the car. If possible, replace wiring with new wire of the same colour. The new wire must be the right size: there are five sizes, depending on current rating. Repairs in wrapped sections of the loom are the only places where you may join wires by twisting them together and soldering the joint mainly because there may not be room for any other method.
By Adrienne Emmanuel. Motor Wiring. Published at Wednesday, February 14th 2018, 06:58:56 AM. Stepper motor performance is strongly dependent on the driver circuit. Torque curves may be extended to greater speeds if the stator poles can be reversed more quickly, the limiting factor being a combination of the winding inductance. To overcome the inductance and switch the windings quickly, one must increase the drive voltage. This leads further to the necessity of limiting the current that these high voltages may otherwise induce.
By Adrienne Emmanuel. Car Wiring. Published at Tuesday, February 13th 2018, 20:19:44 PM. When the clutch pedal is released, the thrust bearing is withdrawn and the diaphragm-spring load once again clamps the driven plate to the flywheel to resume the transmission of power. Some cars have a hydraulically operated clutch. Pressure on the clutch pedal inside the car activates a piston in a master cylinder, which transmits the pressure through a fluid-filled pipe to a slave cylinder mounted on the clutch housing. The slave-cylinder piston is connected to the clutch release arm.
By Mailys Laurent. Car Wiring. Published at Tuesday, February 13th 2018, 18:46:51 PM. Brushes are used to create electrical contact to the commutator segments and when current is fed into two of the four brushes, it flows through all the loops of the armature and shoe windings and out the other two brushes. This creates a magnetic field around each loop. As the armature turns, the loop will move to a position where the current flow reverses. This constant reversal of current flow allows the armature and field coils to repel each other and spin the motor. The greater the current flowing in the coils, the greater the magnetic forces, and the greater the power of the motor.
By Adrienne Emmanuel. Motor Wiring. Published at Tuesday, February 13th 2018, 18:31:54 PM. A common type of servo provides position control. Commonly, servos are electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic. They operate on the principle of negative feedback, where the control input is compared to the actual position of the mechanical system as measured by some sort of transducer at the output. Any difference between the actual and wanted values (an "error signal") is amplified (and converted) and used to drive the system in the direction necessary to reduce or eliminate the error. This procedure is one widely used application of control theory. Typical servos can give a rotary (angular) or linear output.
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