By Olivier Constance. Electrical Wiring. Publised at Friday, January 12th 2018, 09:10:55 AM. It’s always good to be cognizant of trace lengths when you’re laying out a parallel bus, though at moderate frequencies it is nothing to stress about. The propagation time for a signal traveling through a trace is maybe 150 picoseconds/inch. So if you have two traces with a length mismatch of one inch, one signal will arrive 150 ps after the other signal. If your signals are transitioning at a frequency whose corresponding period is much greater than 150 ps, this one-inch mismatch won’t cause problems. Even at 100 MHz (which is pretty fast for a parallel bus), the period is 10 ns, i.e., ~67 times larger than the time-of-arrival discrepancy for a one-inch mismatch.
By Dorian Yannic. Electrical Wiring. Published at Monday, January 08th 2018, 04:49:54 AM. You can also see that I’ve made it very easy for heat to move away from the regulator (U1) and into the ambient environment or into other portions of the PCB. U1’s thermal tab is connected to a large copper pour, and this copper pour is shot through with vias that conduct heat down to the internal ground plane. If I were really worried about thermal issues I could also connect these vias to a copper pour on the bottom side of the board, but in this case, it would have been total overkill.
By Mailys Laurent. Car Wiring. Published at Monday, January 08th 2018, 03:44:15 AM. It transmits engine power to the gearbox, and allows transmission to be interrupted while a gear is selected to move off from a stationary position, or when gears are changed while the car is moving. Master cylinder Operatinglinkage Slave cylinder Flywheel The mastercylinder pumpshydraulic fluidin direction ofthe arrow. Most cars use a friction clutch operated either by fluid (hydraulic) or, more commonly, by a cable. When a car is moving under power, the clutch is engaged. A pressure plate bolted to the flywheel exerts constant force, by means of a diaphragm spring, on the driven plate. Earlier cars have a series of coil springs at the back of the pressure plate, instead of a diaphragm spring.
By Claudine Nicolette. Motor Wiring. Published at Monday, January 08th 2018, 01:16:15 AM. This means that when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off, the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one. From there the process is repeated. Each of those rotations is called a "step", with an integer number of steps making a full rotation. In that way, the motor can be turned by a precise angle.
By Mailys Laurent. Motor Wiring. Published at Monday, January 08th 2018, 01:11:52 AM. A servomotor is a specific type of motor that is combined with a rotary encoder or a potentiometer to form a servomechanism. This assembly may in turn form part of another servomechanism. A potentiometer provides a simple analog signal to indicate position, while an encoder provides position and usually speed feedback, which by the use of a PID controller allow more precise control of position and thus faster achievement of a stable position (for a given motor power). Potentiometers are subject to drift when the temperature changes whereas encoders are more stable and accurate.
By Adrienne Emmanuel. Motor Wiring. Published at Monday, January 08th 2018, 00:31:27 AM. The arduino sends pulses to the servo motor much like sending them to an ESC. The pulses have a different meaning. The pulses describe a spot to go to. Within the servo there is a feedback mechanism that counts shadows or turns a variable resistor. The servo circuit board then moves the servo to that spot. It knows when it has reached the spot when a certain number of shadows have past or when the resistance reaches a certain value. The arduino has to keep sending the same position over and over again to hold the motor in a current spot. Short pulses go one direction, long pulses the opposite direction, medium pulse widths go to the middle. Middle is typically 1.5 milli seconds.
By Mailys Laurent. Electrical Wiring. Published at Monday, January 08th 2018, 00:13:06 AM. Care should be taken when depaneling the perforated-tab PCB array; otherwise, an incorrect method will splinter or tear the solder-mask or active surface layer. The ideal breakout method should not cause any damage to the board or transfer stress from the PCB surface to the components.
By Gaspard Magalie. Car Wiring. Published at Sunday, January 07th 2018, 15:18:23 PM. Joins in individual wires are usually made with crimp connectors. The colour on the sleeve of a connector denotes the size of wire it will take. The bared ends of each wire are pushed into opposite ends of the metal-lined plastic sleeve, and squeezed with crimping pliers. There are multiple sleeves or other special connectors where a wire branches off.
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