By Adrienne Emmanuel. Electrical Wiring. Publised at Saturday, January 06th 2018, 01:57:12 AM. The fixtures are usually available in a variety of designs, materials, sizes, and thicknesses. Some can carry more than one board hence allowing the processing of multiple PCBs simultaneously. Other designs have adjustments to support both the primary and secondary side processes.
By Mailys Laurent. Motor Wiring. Published at Friday, January 05th 2018, 09:37:00 AM. A stepper motor is a polyphase AC synchronous motor (see Theory below), and it is ideally driven by sinusoidal current. A full-step waveform is a gross approximation of a sinusoid, and is the reason why the motor exhibits so much vibration. Various drive techniques have been developed to better approximate a sinusoidal drive waveform: these are half stepping and microstepping.
By Cyrille Lothaire. Electrical Wiring. Published at Friday, January 05th 2018, 09:31:29 AM. Although this device uses an I2C interface with communication speeds up to 1 MHz, two of the eight pins are dedicated to Alert (pin3) and nReset (pin 6). The Alert pin is intended to be connected, if desired, to an interrupt pin on a microcontroller. According to section 3.5 (ALERT Pin) of the datasheet, "The output of the pin depends on the value of the temperature reading relative to programmable limits," and its function is "explained in a separate application note.
By Fleurette Nina. Electrical Wiring. Published at Friday, January 05th 2018, 06:48:42 AM. This PCB, like almost all of my PCBs, is a four-layer board. In my opinion, it is not wise to restrict yourself to two layers unless you’re dealing with a very simple circuit or you really need to cut costs. The four-layer arrangement is beneficial in terms of routing and performance: routing, because via connections to internal planes almost completely eliminate power and ground traces; and performance, because the internal planes allow for low-resistance, low-inductance power and ground connections. The extra top-layer and bottom-layer real estate opened up by all the internal-plane connections come in very handy when you need to provide a generous copper area for improved thermal performance (for example, to make sure that your LDO or your motor driver doesn’t overheat and enter thermal shutdown).
By Dorian Yannic. Electrical Wiring. Published at Friday, January 05th 2018, 06:27:25 AM. Note that U4, a 10 MHz MEMS oscillator, is also very close to the microcontroller’s clock input pin. It’s always a good idea to minimize the length of traces carrying high-frequency digital signals. First of all, there are noise benefits: a shorter, more direct trace reduces the amount of noise that would otherwise be coupled into adjacent traces, and a shorter trace also reduces electromagnetic interference (EMI) because it is less effective as an antenna. The second issue is related to transmission-line effects. Minimizing trace length is a simple way to avoid problems related to signal reflections. However, reflection is not a significant concern at frequencies in the 10 MHz range, unless you are dealing with long interconnections or a very large PCB.
By Cyrille Lothaire. Electrical Wiring. Published at Friday, January 05th 2018, 05:05:36 AM. PCBs with SMT on both sides and those with mixed TH and SMTs may start to flex and bow when in the reflow oven or selective soldering machine. For this reason, the maximum size for this type of board is usually smaller than the single-sided. Breaking out the boards manually can stress the board and components near the edges, the solder joints, or leave out rough stubs on the edges
By Olivier Constance. Car Wiring. Published at Thursday, January 04th 2018, 22:03:12 PM. Starter motors fail mostly due to overheating. They are placed in a hostile, hot environment and cannot be expected to last indefinitely. Another mode of failure is a shorted or open winding. This exhibits itself as a "dead spot" on the commutator. If a brush lands on a dead spot the motor wont turn at all. A third failure-mode is a faulty pinion engagement. Sometimes the pinion assembly gets stiff or stuck due to lack of lubrication or wear. Starter motor rebuilding or replacement is required for all of these problems.
By France Barbara. Motor Wiring. Published at Thursday, January 04th 2018, 15:05:05 PM. Outrunners and inrunners both use the same ESC. This ESC is different than that of the brushed DC motor. There are three wires going to the motor instead of two. The wiring between the ESC and the Arduino consists if the same 5 wires. The three wires give the brushless motors more pulling power. Understanding this helps understand stepper motors below.
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