By Cyrille Lothaire. Car Wiring. Publised at Saturday, July 08th 2017, 12:19:44 PM. STARTER SOLENOID "Relay" — All cars are wired so that the batterys main cable connects to the starter motor windings "the thick cable is needed for large current flow, right?". This wire must be switched on and off, of course, and it would be costly and inefficient to route it through the ignition switch "not to mention the size of the switchs components required to carry such current!". Consequently, a relay is necessary.
By Cyrille Lothaire. Motor Wiring. Published at Friday, January 05th 2018, 10:25:56 AM. Speed can be varied by either changing the voltage or pulsing the motor. Most computer controlled DC motors are pulsed. Pulses of a fixed voltage are sent to the motor, usually by an Electronic Speed Controller or ESC. A pulse of 1.5 ms causes no motion. Wider pulses cause faster spinning in one direction. Shorter pulses cause faster spinning in the opposite direction. Eventually, an overstressed ESC stops pulsing and turns one wire on and one wire off, depending on the direction.
By Mailys Laurent. Motor Wiring. Published at Friday, January 05th 2018, 09:37:00 AM. Bipolar motors have a single winding per phase. The current in a winding needs to be reversed in order to reverse a magnetic pole, so the driving circuit must be more complicated, typically with an H-bridge arrangement "however there are several off-the-shelf driver chips available to make this a simple affair". There are two leads per phase, none are common.Static friction effects using an H-bridge have been observed with certain drive topologies.
By Cyrille Lothaire. Electrical Wiring. Published at Friday, January 05th 2018, 09:31:29 AM. V-groove panelization involves cutting a third of the board’s thickness from the top and bottom sides. The remaining part joins the separate boards and is then cut with a machine during the depaneling. This helps to reduce the stress on the PCB. One challenge with the V-groove method is that it is restrictive and cannot be used with PCBs that have overhanging components over the edges.
By Fleurette Nina. Electrical Wiring. Published at Friday, January 05th 2018, 06:48:42 AM. Manufacturers can use fixtures or panels to secure or frame fragile, thin, or oddly shaped PCBs. This allows them to easily fit the boards in the standard assembly, reflow, or automatic inspection machines. In addition to handling the irregular boards, the technologies enable the simultaneous processing of multiple boards as opposed to working on each board individually, hence reducing the production time and costs.
By Dorian Yannic. Electrical Wiring. Published at Friday, January 05th 2018, 06:27:25 AM. The decoupling capacitors (C4, C5, C6, C7, C9, C10, C11) are arranged around the perimeter of the chip, very close to their respective power pins and to the vias that connect the caps to the internal planes. Notice how the smaller cap is always closer to the power pin; this is because we rely more on the lower-value capacitor for high-frequency bypassing, and thus the first priority is minimizing the inductance and resistance between the smaller cap and the pin.
By Cyrille Lothaire. Electrical Wiring. Published at Friday, January 05th 2018, 05:05:36 AM. Care should be taken when depaneling the perforated-tab PCB array; otherwise, an incorrect method will splinter or tear the solder-mask or active surface layer. The ideal breakout method should not cause any damage to the board or transfer stress from the PCB surface to the components.
By Olivier Constance. Car Wiring. Published at Thursday, January 04th 2018, 22:03:12 PM. Cars are filled with stuff that can make or break performance. The engine needs to be fed the proper amounts of air, fuel, and spark. The suspension and brakes must be in tip-top shape. The wheels and tires, transmission, cooling system, gauges—even the seats—must all function properly.
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