By Claudine Nicolette. Electrical Wiring. Publised at Monday, January 08th 2018, 22:20:12 PM. I always prefer to maintain a logical flow of signals and functionality in my PCB layouts. I think that this approach results in an easier design process and a better board. The AWG layout progresses from left to right: from power input and communication input/output, to the power supply circuitry, to the processor, to the DAC (which is controlled by the processor and constitutes the board’s transition from digital to analog), to the analog signal-conditioning circuitry, and finally to the output connector. Parts that don’t have a specific position in the functional flow—such as the oscillator (U4), the DAC’s passives (C16, R5, etc.), and the voltage reference (U3)—are arranged near the components that they support.
By Fleurette Nina. Motor Wiring. Published at Monday, February 26th 2018, 21:32:42 PM. Stepper motors are like a servo motor in that they move to a spot and hold their position. But they can also spin like a DC and Brushless Motor. They can not hold their position as strongly as a servo motor, and they can not spin as fast as a brushed or brushless motor.
By Cyrille Lothaire. Car Wiring. Published at Sunday, February 25th 2018, 04:10:29 AM. Also look for grommets that have come out of their holes. The sharp edge of the hole will soon chafe through wire insulation and cause a short circuit. Whenever you pull a connection apart, look for corrosion which might cause bad contact. If necessary, clean contacting metal surfaces with a fine file or emery cloth.
By Olivier Constance. Car Wiring. Published at Thursday, February 22nd 2018, 19:38:58 PM. Wires and bundles of wires are clipped to the bodywork to keep them out of the way. Where they run through a hole, the sharp edges are lined with a rubber grommet. Sometimes the loom is divided into sections joined by multi-pin plugs and sockets, so that it can be removed and refitted section by section.
By Cyrille Lothaire. Electrical Wiring. Published at Thursday, February 22nd 2018, 03:34:10 AM. It’s always good to be cognizant of trace lengths when you’re laying out a parallel bus, though at moderate frequencies it is nothing to stress about. The propagation time for a signal traveling through a trace is maybe 150 picoseconds/inch. So if you have two traces with a length mismatch of one inch, one signal will arrive 150 ps after the other signal. If your signals are transitioning at a frequency whose corresponding period is much greater than 150 ps, this one-inch mismatch won’t cause problems. Even at 100 MHz (which is pretty fast for a parallel bus), the period is 10 ns, i.e., ~67 times larger than the time-of-arrival discrepancy for a one-inch mismatch.
By Fleurette Nina. Car Wiring. Published at Thursday, February 22nd 2018, 02:59:45 AM. Ring terminal This alternative to the spadeterminal is used on heavier components. "Scotchlok" connector The "Scotchlok" connector splices two wires together, using asharp metal blade which pierces theinsulation. This is clamped using a pair ofpliers, and covered with a plastic clip.
By Fleurette Nina. Motor Wiring. Published at Thursday, February 22nd 2018, 01:17:06 AM. The circular arrangement of electromagnets is divided into groups, each group called a phase, and there is an equal number of electromagnets per group. The number of groups is chosen by the designer of the stepper motor. The electromagnets of each group are interleaved with the electromagnets of other groups to form a uniform pattern of arrangement. For example, if the stepper motor has two groups identified as A or B, and ten electromagnets in total, then the grouping pattern would be ABABABABAB.
By Claudine Nicolette. Electrical Wiring. Published at Wednesday, February 21st 2018, 18:29:47 PM. Note that U4, a 10 MHz MEMS oscillator, is also very close to the microcontroller’s clock input pin. It’s always a good idea to minimize the length of traces carrying high-frequency digital signals. First of all, there are noise benefits: a shorter, more direct trace reduces the amount of noise that would otherwise be coupled into adjacent traces, and a shorter trace also reduces electromagnetic interference (EMI) because it is less effective as an antenna. The second issue is related to transmission-line effects. Minimizing trace length is a simple way to avoid problems related to signal reflections. However, reflection is not a significant concern at frequencies in the 10 MHz range, unless you are dealing with long interconnections or a very large PCB.
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