By Dorian Yannic. Car Wiring. Publised at Monday, January 08th 2018, 17:17:00 PM. Brushes are used to create electrical contact to the commutator segments and when current is fed into two of the four brushes, it flows through all the loops of the armature and shoe windings and out the other two brushes. This creates a magnetic field around each loop. As the armature turns, the loop will move to a position where the current flow reverses. This constant reversal of current flow allows the armature and field coils to repel each other and spin the motor. The greater the current flowing in the coils, the greater the magnetic forces, and the greater the power of the motor.
By Gaspard Magalie. Motor Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 05:48:48 AM. Servomotors are used for both high-end and low-end applications. On the high end are precision industrial components that use a rotary encoder. On the low end are inexpensive radio control servos (RC servos) used in radio-controlled models which use a free-running motor and a simple potentiometer position sensor with an embedded controller. The term servomotor generally refers to a high-end industrial component while the term servo is most often used to describe the inexpensive devices that employ a potentiometer. Stepper motors are not considered to be servomotors, although they too are used to construct larger servomechanisms. Stepper motors have inherent angular positioning, owing to their construction, and this is generally used in an open-loop manner without feedback. They are generally used for medium-precision applications.
By Gaspard Magalie. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 04:07:17 AM. This system uses a metal wire embedded underneath the road as a guide for the battery powered vehicles. This wire is flexible enough to be used on straights, curves and hills. The vehicles are fitted with a motorised chassis and rechargeable battery which pushes the vehicle forwards via a small motor and gear arrangement, following the guide wire. The magnet offset to one side on the chassis is what activates the various additional modules (more on those later).
By Cyrille Lothaire. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 02:17:52 AM. Several modern cars have separate thin wires embedded in flat plastic strips. These strips are very compact, and are used mainly for accessories and relay controls that require little power.
By Gaspard Magalie. Electrical Wiring. Published at Friday, December 29th 2017, 23:04:12 PM. This PCB, like almost all of my PCBs, is a four-layer board. In my opinion, it is not wise to restrict yourself to two layers unless you’re dealing with a very simple circuit or you really need to cut costs. The four-layer arrangement is beneficial in terms of routing and performance: routing, because via connections to internal planes almost completely eliminate power and ground traces; and performance, because the internal planes allow for low-resistance, low-inductance power and ground connections. The extra top-layer and bottom-layer real estate opened up by all the internal-plane connections come in very handy when you need to provide a generous copper area for improved thermal performance (for example, to make sure that your LDO or your motor driver doesn’t overheat and enter thermal shutdown).
By Claudine Nicolette. Electrical Wiring. Published at Friday, December 29th 2017, 20:19:29 PM. Reset pin may be used to generate a system reset of the IC. And while a reset may also be externally generated by issuing a command (referred to as a soft reset), to achieve a full reset it is recommended to use the nReset pin (or of course you can also cycle power). On the other hand, if this pin is not to be used then it is recommended that it is either left floating or tied to VDD via a series resistor of value ≥2 kΩ.
By Adrienne Emmanuel. Electrical Wiring. Published at Friday, December 29th 2017, 20:12:23 PM. When implementing a real-time system, we find a circular buffer critical whether we are using a DSP processor or a general purpose processor (GPP). However, with a GPP we may have to implement the circular buffer in software. As discussed in the previous section, with each new sample, we have to update the pointer which contains the address of the newest sample. With a circular buffer implemented in software, the programmer needs to take care of updating the buffer pointers after each read and write operation. When the pointer reaches the end of the buffer, the program must wrap the pointer back to the beginning of the buffer.
By Dorian Yannic. Electrical Wiring. Published at Friday, December 29th 2017, 15:30:43 PM. The decoupling capacitors (C4, C5, C6, C7, C9, C10, C11) are arranged around the perimeter of the chip, very close to their respective power pins and to the vias that connect the caps to the internal planes. Notice how the smaller cap is always closer to the power pin; this is because we rely more on the lower-value capacitor for high-frequency bypassing, and thus the first priority is minimizing the inductance and resistance between the smaller cap and the pin.
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