By Cyrille Lothaire. Electrical Wiring. Publised at Friday, January 05th 2018, 09:31:29 AM. This PCB, like almost all of my PCBs, is a four-layer board. In my opinion, it is not wise to restrict yourself to two layers unless you’re dealing with a very simple circuit or you really need to cut costs. The four-layer arrangement is beneficial in terms of routing and performance: routing, because via connections to internal planes almost completely eliminate power and ground traces; and performance, because the internal planes allow for low-resistance, low-inductance power and ground connections. The extra top-layer and bottom-layer real estate opened up by all the internal-plane connections come in very handy when you need to provide a generous copper area for improved thermal performance (for example, to make sure that your LDO or your motor driver doesn’t overheat and enter thermal shutdown).
By Olivier Constance. Electrical Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 09:22:32 AM. Depanelization is the process of separating the individual boards from the main array and usually depends on the panelization method applied. The choice depends on the clearance to provide at the edges of the PCB, and the presence of sensitive SMT devices, or hanging connectors near the edges. There are automatic methods, such as the laser cutting or depaneling router, as well as manual methods that involve breaking the tabs using hands or other tools.
By Olivier Constance. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 08:37:15 AM. Wires and bundles of wires are clipped to the bodywork to keep them out of the way. Where they run through a hole, the sharp edges are lined with a rubber grommet. Sometimes the loom is divided into sections joined by multi-pin plugs and sockets, so that it can be removed and refitted section by section.
By Olivier Constance. Electrical Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 08:31:27 AM. I always prefer to maintain a logical flow of signals and functionality in my PCB layouts. I think that this approach results in an easier design process and a better board. The AWG layout progresses from left to right: from power input and communication input/output, to the power supply circuitry, to the processor, to the DAC (which is controlled by the processor and constitutes the board’s transition from digital to analog), to the analog signal-conditioning circuitry, and finally to the output connector. Parts that don’t have a specific position in the functional flow—such as the oscillator (U4), the DAC’s passives (C16, R5, etc.), and the voltage reference (U3)—are arranged near the components that they support.
By Dorian Yannic. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 06:55:37 AM. Several modern cars have separate thin wires embedded in flat plastic strips. These strips are very compact, and are used mainly for accessories and relay controls that require little power.
By Gaspard Magalie. Motor Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 05:48:48 AM. Speed can be varied by either changing the voltage or pulsing the motor. Most computer controlled DC motors are pulsed. Pulses of a fixed voltage are sent to the motor, usually by an Electronic Speed Controller or ESC. A pulse of 1.5 ms causes no motion. Wider pulses cause faster spinning in one direction. Shorter pulses cause faster spinning in the opposite direction. Eventually, an overstressed ESC stops pulsing and turns one wire on and one wire off, depending on the direction.
By Gaspard Magalie. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 04:07:17 AM. Rubber grommets are used where wirespass through holes drilled in the bodywork,to prevent sharp edges cutting theinsulation. Cable clips The loom and individual cables areheld to the bodywork by various types of clips.
By Cyrille Lothaire. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 02:17:52 AM. Push a screwdriver blade through the grommet carefully to enlarge it for the new cables, taking care not to damage insulation on existing wires. If you pass a cable through a new hole, fit the hole with a grommet. To pass wires up door pillars or behind trim, tape them to a piece of fairly stiff wire, poke it carefully behind the trim or up the pillar, and pull it through at the far end, bringing the wire with it.
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