The motor can be directly pulsed by the arduino. The arduino can also supply power to the motor, but normally this is only a good idea for demonstration purposes. The arduino has a very weak power supply, and attempting to power a motor through it can destroy the arduino. Furthermore, the arduino may not be able to supply the exact correct maximum voltage. For this reason, an ESC is placed between the arduino and the motor.
Brushless inrunners are very similar from the outside to a brushed DC motor in terms of size. They are usually mounted on a circuit board like a servo motor with a gear box. They spin very fast and have to be geared down like a brushed dc motor. They are different than a brushed dc motor in that they are stronger, more efficient and last longer. They can be matched to a wider variety of propellers or loads by adjusting the gearing.
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