One way to distinguish the center tap (common wire) from a coil-end wire is by measuring the resistance. Resistance between common wire and coil-end wire is always half of the resistance between coil-end wires. This is because there is twice the length of coil between the ends and only half from center (common wire) to the end. A quick way to determine if the stepper motor is working is to short circuit every two pairs and try turning the shaft. Whenever a higher than normal resistance is felt, it indicates that the circuit to the particular winding is closed and that the phase is working.
Variable speed motors do not necessary have the hall effect probes. The electronics in the ESC pulses the motor to tell it is initial direction and some other feed back system humans using RC or an autopilot reading accelerometers or gyros adjusts the speed.
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