The motor can be directly pulsed by the arduino. The arduino can also supply power to the motor, but normally this is only a good idea for demonstration purposes. The arduino has a very weak power supply, and attempting to power a motor through it can destroy the arduino. Furthermore, the arduino may not be able to supply the exact correct maximum voltage. For this reason, an ESC is placed between the arduino and the motor.
After the retaining ring is removed, the entire assembly that spins can be removed. There may be some resistance that feels like removing magnets from each other. Underneath the cup of all outrunner brushless motors is a series of coils. On some motors, between the coils, are hall effect probes. Hall effect probes detect the spinning magnetic field and provide a pulse out of the brushless motors to the electronics. From this pulse the electronics can precisely control the speed of the motor
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