The motor can be directly pulsed by the arduino. The arduino can also supply power to the motor, but normally this is only a good idea for demonstration purposes. The arduino has a very weak power supply, and attempting to power a motor through it can destroy the arduino. Furthermore, the arduino may not be able to supply the exact correct maximum voltage. For this reason, an ESC is placed between the arduino and the motor.
Positioning servomechanisms were first used in military fire-control and marine navigation equipment. Today servomechanisms are used in automatic machine tools, satellite-tracking antennas, remote control airplanes, automatic navigation systems on boats and planes, and antiaircraft-gun control systems. Other examples are fly-by-wire systems in aircraft which use servos to actuate the aircraft control surfaces, and radio-controlled models which use RC servos for the same purpose. Many autofocus cameras also use a servomechanism to accurately move the lens. A hard disk drive has a magnetic servo system with sub-micrometre positioning accuracy. In industrial machines, servos are used to perform complex motion, in many applications.
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