Fixed speed motors have a cable that contains power, inputs (motor on, motor half speed) and an output pulse related to the motors motion. Variable speed motors typically have no circuitry directly associated with the motor. Instead there are typically three wires coming out that attach to an "Electronic Speed Controller."
RC servos are used to provide actuation for various mechanical systems such as the steering of a car, the control surfaces on a plane, or the rudder of a boat. Due to their affordability, reliability, and simplicity of control by microprocessors, they are often used in small-scale robotics applications. A standard RC receiver (or a microcontroller) sends pulse-width modulation (PWM) signals to the servo. The electronics inside the servo translate the width of the pulse into a position. When the servo is commanded to rotate, the motor is powered until the potentiometer reaches the value corresponding to the commanded position.
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