They are not controlled through a circuit board or ESC. They have to be connected to the arduino through a motor shield or custom built circuit. They are typically the most expensive. Stepper motors can have 4, 5, 6, or 8 wires. To use them with the arduino, understanding the internal wiring is absolutely necessary. The best way to learn the internal wiring is to assume no manual exists, and "discover" the internal wiring.
Fixed speed motors have a cable that contains power, inputs (motor on, motor half speed) and an output pulse related to the motors motion. Variable speed motors typically have no circuitry directly associated with the motor. Instead there are typically three wires coming out that attach to an "Electronic Speed Controller."
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