A stepper motor is a polyphase AC synchronous motor (see Theory below), and it is ideally driven by sinusoidal current. A full-step waveform is a gross approximation of a sinusoid, and is the reason why the motor exhibits so much vibration. Various drive techniques have been developed to better approximate a sinusoidal drive waveform: these are half stepping and microstepping.
Outrunners and inrunners both use the same ESC. This ESC is different than that of the brushed DC motor. There are three wires going to the motor instead of two. The wiring between the ESC and the Arduino consists if the same 5 wires. The three wires give the brushless motors more pulling power. Understanding this helps understand stepper motors below.
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