The five wires coming off the circuit board are the same as those coming off the ESC attached to the brushed dc motor and the servo motor circuit board "2 for power in and 3 go to the arduino". The pulses mean the same as the brushless dc motor. The only difference is that at maximum RPM, there are still pulses. There is not one long pulse like the brushed dc motor. The only physical difference is that there are three wires into the motor you may not be able to see them when it is mounted on a circuit board.
The circular arrangement of electromagnets is divided into groups, each group called a phase, and there is an equal number of electromagnets per group. The number of groups is chosen by the designer of the stepper motor. The electromagnets of each group are interleaved with the electromagnets of other groups to form a uniform pattern of arrangement. For example, if the stepper motor has two groups identified as A or B, and ten electromagnets in total, then the grouping pattern would be ABABABABAB.
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