Variable speed motors do not necessary have the hall effect probes. The electronics in the ESC pulses the motor to tell it is initial direction and some other feed back system humans using RC or an autopilot reading accelerometers or gyros adjusts the speed.
Outrunners and inrunners both use the same ESC. This ESC is different than that of the brushed DC motor. There are three wires going to the motor instead of two. The wiring between the ESC and the Arduino consists if the same 5 wires. The three wires give the brushless motors more pulling power. Understanding this helps understand stepper motors below.
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